Understanding Semen Analysis: A Comprehensive Guide to Male Fertility Testing

Male fertility is a critical factor in achieving successful conception, and semen analysis serves as a vital tool for evaluating male reproductive health. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the various aspects of semen analysis, including the parameters evaluated and their relevance to fertility. 

We will also explore the process of semen collection, highlighting the importance of proper sample handling. Additionally, we will shed light on the interpretation of semen analysis results, distinguishing between normal and abnormal findings. Finally, we will focus on the sperm count test and its significance in male fertility assessment.

What is Semen Analysis?

Semen analysis is a laboratory test that provides crucial information about the quality of semen and male reproductive health. It involves the evaluation of several parameters that contribute to fertility potential. These parameters include sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, semen volume, and pH level. Understanding the role of each parameter and its significance in fertility assessment is essential for individuals seeking to understand their reproductive health.

Semen Collection Process

Proper semen collection is vital to obtain accurate results during semen analysis. The most common method of collection is masturbation, where the entire ejaculate is collected in a sterile container. 

This method ensures the best representation of the sperm quality. Other methods, such as using a collection condom during intercourse or using special collection devices, can also be used under certain circumstances. Followіng certain rules is essentіal for successful semеn collection, including: 


  1. Abstinence Period: It іs typіcally advіsed to abstain from any sexual activity or еjaculatіon for a pеrіod of two to fivе days prior to sеmen collеctіon in ordеr to ensurе accurate results. This period allows for the accumulation of sperm and provides a representative sample for analysis.
  2. Hygiene: Maintaining proper hygiene before semen collection is crucial to prevent contamination of the sample. It is advised to wash the genital area properly with soap and water before collection.
  3. Avoidance of Lubricants: Lubricants, including saliva and commercially available lubricants, can interfere with sperm motility and viability. It is paramount to refrain from using any lubricants during semen collection.

Sample Handling and Preservation

Proper sample handling and preservation are essential to maintain the accuracy of semen analysis results. After semen collection, the sample should be transferred into a sterile container that is specifically designed for semen analysis. It is important to avoid containers that may interfere with sperm viability or introduce contaminants.

The timely transportation of the sample to the laboratory is crucial. Semen samples should be delivered to the laboratory within 30 minutes to one hour of collection to ensure the integrity of the sperm. In cases where transportation time is longer, it is recommended to keep the sample at body temperature (close to 37 degrees Celsius) to maintain the viability of the sperm.

Parameters Evaluated in Semen Analysis

Sperm Count

This count refers to the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. It is one of the fundamental parameters assessed in semen analysis and provides insights into male fertility potential. The measurement is typically expressed as the number of sperm per millilitre (ml) of semen. 

A normal sperm count typically ranges from 15 to 200 million sperm per millilitre. A lower sperm count may indicate a reduced chance of successful fertilisation. Conversely, a very high sperm count can also have implications for fertility and may be associated with certain reproductive conditions.

Sperm Motility

Sperm motility refers to the ability of sperm to move and swim forward effectively. It is a critical factor in successful fertilisation as motile sperm are more likely to reach and penetrate the egg. Sperm motility is categorised into different grades based on the pattern and speed of movement:


  1. Progressive Motility: This category includes sperm that exhibit forward movement in a straight line or large circles. Sperm with progressive motility have the highest chances of successfully reaching and fertilising an egg.
  2. Non-Progressive Motility: Sperm in this category have some movement, but it is limited or not in a straight line. Non-progressive motility may indicate reduced fertility potential.
  3. Immotile: This category includes sperm that show no movement. Immotile sperm have very little chance of successfully fertilising an egg.


A higher percentage of progressively motile sperm is considered favourable for fertility. The reference range for normal sperm motility is typically around 40% or higher.

Sperm Morphology

Sperm morphology evaluates the size, shape, and structure of sperm cells. Normal sperm have a characteristic shape, including a well-defined head, midpiece, and tail. Abnormalities in sperm morphology can affect their ability to fertilise an egg. During semen analysis, the morphology of sperm is assessed based on certain criteria, such as the strict criteria or Kruger’s strict criteria. 

These criteria define the percentage of normal-shaped sperm that should be present in the sample. Generally, a sample with a higher percentage of normal-shaped sperm is associated with better fertility potential. The reference range for normal sperm morphology is typically around 4% or higher.

Semen Volume

Semen volume refers to the amount of fluid ejaculated during ejaculation. While semen volume alone does not determine fertility, it provides important information about the overall health of the male reproductive system. Normal semen volume typically ranges from 1.5 to 5 millilitres. 

An excessively low semen volume may indicate issues such as obstruction or retrograde ejaculation. On the other hand, a very high semen volume may suggest the presence of certain conditions, such as inflammation or infection of the reproductive tract.

pH Level

The pH level of semen indicates its acidity or alkalinity. It can impact sperm function and survival within the female reproductive tract. The normal pH range for semen is slightly alkaline, typically between 7.2 and 8.0. 

A deviaton from this range may affect sperm motility and the ability to fertilise an egg. Imbalances in pH level can be influenced by various factors, including infection, inflammation, or abnormalities in the seminal vesicles or prostate gland.

Want to get you semen analysed? Book a semen analysis test online right now!

Normal vs. Abnormal Semen Analysis Results

Understanding the interpretation of semen analysis results is crucial for assessing male fertility. Each parameter evaluated during semen analysis has reference values that define what is considered normal and abnormal. Abnormal results in any of the parameters can indicate potential fertility issues. For example:


  1. Sperm Count: A sperm count below 15 million sperm per millilitre is generally considered low, which may reduce the chances of successful fertilisation.
  2. Sperm Motility: A lower percentage of progressively motile sperm may indicate reduced fertility potential.
  3. Sperm Morphology: A lower percentage of normal-shaped sperm may suggest abnormalities that can affect fertility.
  4. Semen Volume: Excessively low or high semen volume may indicate underlying issues that require further evaluation.
  5. pH Level: Deviation from the normal pH range may impact sperm function and fertility potential.


It is important to note that abnormal results of semen analysis tests online do not provide a definitive diagnosis. Further evaluation, including additional tests and consultations with a fertility specialist, may be necessary to determine the underlying cause and guide appropriate treatment options.

Sperm Count Test

The sperm count test is a vital component of semen analysis and involves determining the number of sperm in a given volume of semen. It provides insights into the sperm concentration, which is an essential factor in fertility evaluation. 

The test is typically performed by diluting the semen sample and using a hemocytometer or automated sperm counting devices to count the sperm. The results are then calculated based on the dilution factor. The sperm count test helps identify potential fertility issues and guides further investigation or treatment options.


Semen analysis plays a pivotal role in assessing male fertility and provides valuable insights into reproductive health. By understanding the parameters evaluated, the process of semen collection, and proper sample handling, individuals can ensure accurate results. 

Additionally, comprehending the interpretation of semen analysis results, including normal and abnormal findings, empowers individuals to seek appropriate medical guidance. 

If you are concerned about your fertility, book a semen analysis test online. Remember, semen analysis is just one aspect of evaluating fertility, and a comprehensive evaluation with a fertility specialist may be necessary for a thorough assessment.

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